The report describes a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in combination, and regeneration of bone collagen (C). Unilateral critical size defects (CSDS) in a radius of 32 bones mature New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits were evenly divided into four treatments: absorption C (bone morphogenetic protein -2 / C), and untreated autologous transplant absorb the C (Helistat ®), 35 μg of rhBMP-2 combined with the Central Securities Depository Management Office. The two euthanasia period were 4 and 8 weeks. X-rays taken the day of surgery, every two weeks, and in the long term measured ray impermeable percentage. Data analysis showed that the percentage of a time-varying radiopacity increased bone morphogenetic protein -2 / C composite rhBMP-2 / C histological examination found eight weeks of treatment, new bone contour. Quantitative histomorphometry, the Correctional Services Department (CSD) and group C was significantly less than the new self-body bone or bone morphogenetic protein-2 / C (P ≤ 0.05) occurred. The results showed that the bone morphogenetic protein -2 / C may be an effective treatment to restore segmental bone defects
Protein and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with polyglycolic acid porous microspheres and autologous blood clots combination to treat large defect in rabbit femoral shaft defect model of bone induction test. Two kinds to cm nonuniting defects is surgery created 50 male New Zealand white rabbits, in the bilateral ulna. Then implanted a paste polyglycolic acid / blood clots combination of the mixed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with five different concentrations of each defect. Forearm radiology assessment of eight weeks, bi-weekly schedule. After 8 weeks, all the animals were sacrificed and forearm radiographed. X-rays, and then score by three independent observers rate of bone formation and healing. Burstein torque tester mechanical strength test, reversing the limbs of the United States. Nonunion limbs, histology, unity limbs each dose group. The imaging assessment shows Healing Ft defects having the higher the rate of bone formation was a dose-dependent response at the extremities of the limbs of the high-dose than the low dose. The Union has made 100% of the highest dose of limbs, while only 50% of the lowest dose, limb bone healing. Implanted carrier alone achieved union without defects. The biomechanics research shows that the age-matched control group was significantly more severe bone. The seemingly normal osteoid histological analysis showed that normal bone formation. These dose-response data further support the role of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 as a powerful form occurs in bone regeneration.
The assumptions of the study, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 into the bone tunnel placed a tendon enhances bone ingrowth. Long digital extensor tendon transplant to the drilling of the proximal tibia of 65 adult mongrel dogs. Use of one limb bone morphogenetic protein, we apply two different doses of tendon - bone interface of type I collagen sponge carrier absorption and limb of the collagen sponge contralateral (control group). 3 days, 8 weeks using the X-ray, the time between the histological examination and biomechanical testing sequence tendon - bone healing attachment were assessed. At all time points, histological and imaging studies show that bone formation of a broader set of new bone protein treatment limb tendon in the paired control limbs around the tendon. Protein processing in the biomechanical testing showed higher tensile strength of the tendon at all time points, the low-dose treatment difference was statistically significant in the two weeks between end and control end. Proposed superior healing histological and biomechanical data, in the low protein doses. This study shows that bone morphogenetic protein can accelerate the process of wound healing, tendon graft bone tunnel.
Crystals of organic compounds, the final supramolecular and solid state molecular recognition and its assembly, chemical and geometric factors, from a single molecule is the best example. The description of the crystal structure of the implicit supramolecular crystal molecule is maintained by non-covalent bonding interactions facts together. Aimed at understanding the phenomenon of intermolecular interactions and identify the context of crystal packing, crystal engineering, you need a reasonable method of solid-state structure of basic and practical significance. Of crystal engineering purposes, it is the interaction between the molecules on the basis of reliable connection is established between the molecular and supramolecular structures. Ideally, would like to identify the target of the sub-structural unit, the supramolecular assembly of the precursor molecules that can be selected from the logic. In fact, the crystal engineering is a new organic synthesis, the purpose of this article is to show rather than name only organic chemistry, this problem is the concept of mainstream, traditional organic synthesis are surprisingly similar. The details of each is not the same, because one here deal with the interaction between molecules, rather than a covalent bond, so the article is divided into two parts. The first is to focus on strategic relationship between the prominent crystal engineering and organic synthesis concept and introduced the term supramolecular synthon. Emphasized second portion, i.e., a specific molecular interaction between the chemical and geometric properties.
This much needed resource brings together a wealth of procedures for the synthesis and practical use of diazocarbonyl compounds. It features methods for the preparation of important catalysts and for applications of diazocarbonyl compounds within each of the main transformation categories including in depth coverage of cyclopropanation, C H and X H insertion, Wolff rearrangement, ylide formation, aromatic cycloaddition and substitution, and many other useful reactions.
Written by leading experts in the field, this book contains cutting edge material on highly enantioselective transformations, and presents new ways of thinking about diazocarbonyl compounds and their applications, from donor acceptor cyclopropanes in organic synthesis to macrocyclic cyclopropanation.
Complete with illustrative examples of procedures in each chapter, clear diagrams, and a detailed bibliography, this practical reference gives readers the tools they need to put diazocarbonyl compounds to work for their own projects an invaluable source of guidance for synthetic organic chemists, chemical scientists, and advanced students
The latest progress in olefin metathesis reaction, the key areas of ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction (RCM) and cross-metathesis review. Numerous display olefin metathesis reaction, the catalytic activity of the complexes, the definition of the recently developed [MO] and [Ru catalyst system has been proven very effective, tolerance polyfunctional. The medium or macrocyclizations, of RCM organizational aspects of peptide chemistry, series ring-opening/ring-closing reaction, and RCM-mediated recombination. Substrates, such as have been discussed in combination in the polymer a change in the form. No metathesis and ring-opening cross-complex decomposition also included.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormones, ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules of the testis development is essential. FSH is used clinically to stimulate follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization and the treatment of anovulatory women. The clinical use of the FSH is a problem of its short half-life in circulation. In order to solve this, we construct the C-terminal peptide containing the FSHβ subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (CG beta) translated sequence fused (FSHβ) the coding sequence of the chimeric gene. To sustain human CG dimer prolonged plasma half-life of CG test this region is very important. Did not significantly affect the component of the FSH beta with the dimer of the α subunit or secretion in the presence of the C-terminal peptide sequence. The in vitro receptor binding and steroid synthesis activity dimer bearing the the FSHβ-C-terminal peptide chimera is the same as the wild-type FSH. However, both the enhanced in vivo potency and half-life in circulation dimer bearing either one or two C-terminal peptide unit. The dimer containing FSHβ-CG Beta chimera as strong clinical use of the FSH receptor agonists, the current strategy can improve a wide range of applications in different protein half-life in the body.
Background: circulating maternal plasma fetal nucleic acid discovery opens up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Small molecule RNA (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA, a recent in-depth investigation, because of their important role in regulating gene expression. Placental origin of the nucleic acid is released into the maternal plasma, we assume that produced by the placenta miRNA will be released into the maternal plasma.
Methods: We systematically searched the placenta in pregnant women plasma miRNA compared to high concentrations of placental tissue and maternal blood cells and investigation of this novel class of stability and filtration pregnancy maternal plasma markers to identify miRNA.
Results: in a panel of TaqMan MicroRNA Assays perfect 157 miRNA occurred at concentrations> 10 times more than in maternal blood cells detected in the placenta and postpartum maternal plasma. These placental miRNA (miR-141 of miR-149 and miR-299-5p and miR-135B) 4 most abundant in maternal plasma was detected in plasma during pregnancy and the postpartum detection rate decreases. The increase in the plasma concentration of miR-141 in pregnancy to progress to the third trimester of pregnancy. [Compared with the mRNA encoded CSH1 Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1 (placental lactogen)], miR-141, maternal plasma is more stable, and after filtration, the concentration is not decreased.
Conclusions: We have demonstrated the presence of the placenta in pregnant women plasma miRNA, and provide some stability and physical properties. These findings open a new class of molecular markers to pregnancy monitoring.
The β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin containing asparagine ( ) - linked oligosaccharides. A review of thestructure and function, these oligosaccharide unit in vivo, we constructed mutants containing genes change orasparagine or threonine codon glycosylation consensus sequences, insertion into the eukaryotic expression vector.Wild type and the mutant protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells alone or in the presence of local alpha subunits. Pulse-chase analysis of beta-expressing clones showed, no two N connected sugar but not the first slowsecretory 1.6-1.8-fold; none of the two N decreased secretion of 2-2.4-fold unit. Analysis of two poly clonal shows,more than 80% of native and glycosylation mutant subunit two dimer secretion. However, pulse-chase analysis of these clones also showed, mutant completely lacking N - sugar but not single site mutations is slow andαsubunitassembly. Therefore, in vivo N-linked oligosaccharides of gravity center measuring is crucial for the efficient secretion and assembly of the alpha subunit, may be important for the proper folding of the governance of βsubunit.
Fibroblast growth factor 10, in the human FGF10 gene encodes a protein. The proteins encoded by this gene is a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Fibroblast growth factor family members with a wide range of mitosis and cell survival activities, and participate in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. Keratinized epidermal cells of this protein having pro-mitotic activity, but substantially no activity of fibroblasts, which is similar to the biological activity of FGF7. The mouse homologous research indicate that this gene in embryonic epidermal morphology, including the development of the brain, lung limb bud formation morphology, and begin. This gene is also implicated in wound healing is a major factor in the process